Direct and Indirect Methods of Assessment

In order to gather evidence of student learning, a variety of assessment methods, direct and indirect, qualitative and quantitative methods, should be used to give adequate feedback to the program to identify strengths and weaknesses (Maki, 2004).

There are basically two types of assessment methods. Direct methods of assessment require students to produce work so that reviewers can assess how well students meet expectations. Indirect methods of assessment provide opportunities for students to reflect on their learning experiences and inform the reviewers their perceptions of their learning experience (Palomba & Banta, 1999). Indirect methods, though helpful in interpreting the findings of direct methods, are not as useful in identifying specific knowledge and skills deficiencies.

The following are examples of direct and indirect methods of assessment:

Direct Methods of Assessment:

Indirect Methods of Assessment: